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Categories of Exceptionalities and Descriptions    

Exceptional Pupils 
       

Although all students are viewed as individuals, some students have special education needs (SENs) that require additional supports. The Education Act defines an exceptional pupil as “a pupil whose behavioural, communicational, intellectual, and physical or multiple exceptionalities are such that he or she is considered to need placement in a special education program”. Students are identified according to the categories and definitions of exceptionalities provided by the Ministry of Education.

Behaviour   

A learning disorder characterized by specific behaviour problems over such a period of time, and to such a marked degree, and of such a nature, as to adversely affect educational performance, and that may be accompanied by one or more of the following:

  • an inability to build or maintain interpersonal relationships;
  • excessive fears or anxieties;
  • a tendency to compulsive reaction; or,
  • an inability to learn that cannot be traced to intellectual, sensory or other health factors, or any combination thereof.

Communication   

Autism    
A severe learning disorder that is characterized by:

  • disturbances in rate of educational development; ability to relate to the environment; mobility; perception; speech and language; and,
  • lack of the representational symbolic behaviour that precedes language.

Deaf and Hard of Hearing  
Impairment characterized by deficits in language and speech development because of a diminished or non-existent auditory response to sound.

Language Impairment
A learning disorder characterized by an impairment in comprehension and/or use of verbal communication for the
written or other symbol system of communication, which may be associated with neurological, psychological, physical, or sensory factors, and which may:

  • involve one or more of the form, content, and function of language in communication; and,
  • include one or more of the following: language delay, dysfluency, voice and articulation development, which may or may not be organically or functionally based.

Speech Impairment
A disorder in language formulation that may be associated with neurological, psychological, physical or sensory factors; that involves perceptual motor aspects of transmitting oral messages; and that may be characterized by impairment in articulation, rhythm, and stress.

Learning Disability
One of a number of neurodevelopmental disorders that persistently and significantly has an impact on a student’s ability to learn and/or use academic and other skills and that:

  • Affects the ability to perceive or process verbal or
    non-verbal information in an effective and accurate manner in students who have assessed intellectual abilities that are at least in the average range;
  • Results in (a) academic underachievement that is inconsistent with the intellectual abilities of the student (which are at least in the average range) and/or (b) academic achievement that can be maintained by the student only with extremely high levels of effort and/or additional support;
  • Results in difficulties in the development and use of skills in one or more of the following areas; reading, writing,
    mathematics, and work habits and learning skills;
  • May typically be associated with difficulties in one or more cognitive processes, such as phonological processing, memory and attention, processing speed, perceptual-motor processing, visual-spatial processing, executive functioning (e.g. self-regulation of behaviour and emotions, planning, organizing of thoughts, and activities, prioritizing, decision making);
  • May be associated with difficulties in social interaction (e.g. difficulty in understanding social norms or the point of view of others); with various other conditions or disorders, diagnosed or undiagnosed; or with other exceptionalities; and,
  • Is not the result of a lack of acuity in hearing and/or vision that has not been corrected; intellectual disabilities; socio-economic factors; cultural differences; lack of proficiency in the language of instruction; lack of motivation or effort; gaps in school attendance or inadequate opportunity to benefit from instruction.

Intellectual     

Giftedness
An unusually advanced degree of general intellectual ability that requires differentiated learning experiences of a depth and breadth beyond those normally provided in their regular school program to satisfy the level of educational potential indicated.

Mild Intellectual Disability
A learning disorder characterized by:

  • an ability to profit educationally within a regular class with the aid of considerable curriculum modification and supportive service;
  • an inability to profit educationally within a regular class because of slow intellectual development; or,
  • a potential for academic learning, independent social adjustment, and economic self-support.

Developmental Disability
A severe learning disorder characterized by:

  • an inability to profit from a special education program for students with mild intellectual disabilities because of slow intellectual development;
  • an ability to profit from a special education program that is designed to accommodate slow intellectual
    development; or,
  • a limited potential for academic learning, independent social adjustment, and economic support.

Physical    

Physical Disability
A condition of such severe physical limitation or deficiency as to require special assistance in learning situations to provide the opportunity for educational achievement equivalent to that of pupils without exceptionalities who are of the same age or developmental level. 

Blind and Low Vision
A condition of partial or total impairment of sight or vision that even with correction affects educational performance adversely.

Multiple     
 
Multiple Exceptionalities
A combination of learning disorders, impairments, or physical disabilities, that is of such nature as to require, for educational achievement, the services of one or more teachers holding qualification in special education and the provision of support services appropriate for such disorders, impairments, or disabilities.